Species sorting in response to environmental requirements has been invoked as a potential explanation for distribution patterns in numerous studies of lotic assemblages, including algae , meiofauna , macroinvertebrates , and fishes , , , , ,. Until recently community ecologyâa science devoted to understanding the patterns and processes of species distribution and abundanceâfocused mainly on specific and often limited scales of a single community. It does not directly focus on metacommunity dynamics but uses methodologically related approaches. In many examples of wet woodland in western Europe, the dominant tree is alder Alnus glutinosa. A special interest has been focused on the development of approaches capable to combine multiple types of existing data and jointly model the dynamics and distributions of entire species communities or ecosystems. Differentiating between paradigms using model fits of species abundance distributions and their subsequent deconstruction by commonness and environmental preference showed that community assembly in the past molluscan community was controlled by a combination of environmental filtering and mass effects.
Several chapters of this important edited book address two-species or multispecies metapopulations, and it uses the term metacommunity as an equivalent for multispecies metapopulation. Values of water variables and algal biomass were similar in the river channel and floodplain lagoons during the annual flood period. Registered users receive a variety of benefits including the ability to customize email alerts, create favorite journals list, and save searches. The mass effects metacommunity model proposes source—sink metapopulation dynamics sensu ; , whereby sink subpopulations are subsidized by subpopulations in adjacent patches. This indicates that the direct applicability of individual concepts to natural systems can be difficult.
All but 3 species exhibited stable densities in both parks, and more than half of the populations analyzed clearly increased in density over the study period. Patch dynamics adds a crucial temporal component to the provision and use of patches. Dispersal either enhances local density beyond local birthrates or enhances local population loss beyond the rates expected from mortality. The practitioners who manage Kruger National Park manipulate fire to prevent such suppression, using patch-mosaic strategies as a basis to ensure varying stages of succession Biggs and Rogers, 2003. Degradation or destruction of the source habitat will, in turn, impact the sink or trap populations, potentially over large distances. Furthermore, they suggest ways in which neutral meta community models can be tested. This review chapter extends knowledge of the Glanville fritillary butterfly, one of the best-studied natural metapopulations, to a metacommunity level, with a strong focus on patch dynamics.
Available for purchase or by subscription. It has been hypothesized that joint associations of community composition with environment and space could be due to patch dynamics involving colonization-extinction processes in environmentally heterogeneous landscapes but this has yet to be theoretically shown. Of particular concern are the effects of overfishing nearshore ecosystems, which can release herbivores from their normal population regulation and result in the overgrazing of kelp and other algae. This model represents the classical theories of the niche-centric era of G. Species synchrony decreased from local to regional scales, and spatial synchrony decreased from species to community levels. We then use this framework to discuss why the concept is useful in modifying existing ecological thinking and illustrate this with a number of both theoretical and empirical examples.
However, if the excess of produced in the source frequently moves to the sink, the sink population can persist indefinitely. The authors suggest that this pattern is equally as common as the nestedness pattern, which stimulated the discussion on species distribution patterns. The Patch Dynamics Concept is now considered to represent just one of at least 4 distinct models of metacommunity dynamics ; see discussion below. Food webs at the landscape level. Available for purchase or by subscription.
We found that skin bacterial communities on frogs were less diverse than, and structurally distinct from, the surrounding habitat. We then use this framework to discuss why the concept is useful in modifying existing ecological thinking and illustrate this with a number of both theoretical and empirical examples. André Arsenault, in , 2015 8. Metacommunity ecology combines the importance of local factors environmental conditions, competition, predation and regional factors dispersal of individuals, immigration, emigration to explain patterns of species distributions that happen in different spatial scales. The model consists of parameters for competition, dispersal, patch heterogeneity, and environmental disturbance, which are then varied to approximate the characteristics of the above paradigms.
In Metacommunities: Spatial dynamics and ecological communities. Coastal oceanography sets the pace of rocky intertidal community dynamics. Some of these potential developments are related to how more comprehensive ecological questions could be answered with statistical models, while other correspond to the numerical challenges posed by emerging types and amounts of ecological data. As ecologists strive to understand increasingly complex mechanisms and strive to work across multiple scales of spatio-temporal organization, concepts like the metacommunity can provide important insights that frequently contrast with those that would be obtained with more conventional approaches based on local communities alone. Benthic algal biomass was relatively uniform at small spatial scales and significantly heterogeneous at larger spatial scales.
Since these top-down models are usually not explicitly related to specific spatial and temporal scales, they are difficult to test and their ecological content remains unclear. Shoemaker and Melbourne 2016 use spatial coexistence theory to develop a mathematical model that can fit all four of the above paradigms, allowing them to analyze coexistence potential in scenarios that contain characteristics of multiple paradigms, which are more biologically realistic interpretations of metacommunities. The neutral scenario assumes that species do not differ from each other in their niches and that all species have equal fitness in each patch. Source-sink dynamics in a temporally, heterogeneous environment. These results suggest that the nature of foodweb exchanges among patches can contrast sharply, even when patches are separated by only a few meters.
Complex interactions in metacommunities, with implications for biodiversity and higher levels of selection. The graphs obtained in this manner are typically fitted to a Zipf—Mandelbrot law, the exponent of which serves as an index of biodiversity in the ecosystem under study. Heterogeneous metacommunities with sufficient dispersal rates have the capacity to mitigate local disturbances in which undis- turbed patches supply an abundance of immi- grants to either recolonize the disturbed patch post-disturbance i. It has also been used as a term within journalism. Landscape patch-dynamics perspectives on rivers and streams came initially from the fluvial geomorphologists who emphasized physical patterns and their changes, especially in response to flow variation ;.